Alexander the Great

Alexander III of Macedon who became known to the world as Alexander the Great. Alexander the great’s reign began when his father Phillip died in 336BC. Alexander was the time of his father’s death was only twenty years old. Alexander gained the support of the Macedonian Army and eliminated his enemies to become king and leader of the Corinthian League.[1] During his time in power Alexander The Great became the leader over Persia and Egypt. His kingdom reaching across the Mediterranean to the border of India. It is said that alexander the Great died at the young age of twenty three from malaria.[2]

 

ALEXANDER THE GREAT: HOW HIS EMPIRE WAS OBTAINED.

atg hose
Mosaic of Alexander the Great on his horse Bucephalus, during the battle of Issus.

 

With an army of 32 000 infantry and 5100 cavalry Alexander crossed over to Asia Minor in 334 BCE and sacked the city of Baalbek, re-naming it Heliopolis.[3] In 333BC Alexander and is army defeated king Darius the third of Persia. This in known in history as the battle of Issos. By 332BC Alexander has defeated Syria. In 331BC he founded the city Alexandria after conquering Egypt. It was at this time that Alexander the Great was proclaimed to be the son of the God Zeus Ammon. This was all in the first five years of Alexander the Greats reign.  The reign of Alexander the Great is still affecting us today. Alexander took over in Phoenicia except of the island city of Tyre. So determined was he to conquer Tyre that he built a causeway from the mainland to the island on which to mount his siege engines to take the city. This causeway, in time, collected silt and earth and is the reason why Tyre is a part of the mainland in Lebanon today.[4]  In 331BC Alexander and his men defeated king Darius the third for the second time at the battlefield of Gaugamela. King Darius the third was then assassinated by one of his own men. It was at this time that Alexander declared himself the king of Asia. He continued on to march on the great city of Susa which surrendered unconditionally without resistance.[5] From there he defeated the city of Persepolis. In 329BC Alexander foundered the city Alexandria-Eschate on the Laxartes river. Around this time, he desrotyed the city of Cyropolis and defeated the Scythians. Alexander introduced the Persian custom of proskynesis to the army, forcing those who addressed him to first kneel and kiss his hand.[6] Alexander the Great took on many Persian customs and this lead to many assassination pots to be made against him. In 328BC Alexander the Great murdered both Callisthenes and Cleitus, in separate incidents, for treason and questioning his authority, respectively.[7] Afer Alexander had control of the Persian Empre he started his quest to obtain India. King Omphis of Taxila submitted to his authority without a fight, but the Aspasioi and Assakenoi tribes strongly resisted.[8] In many battles between 327 – 326BC Alexander defeated the resisting tribes. He met king Pours of Paurava at the Battle of the Hydaspes River in 326 BC.[9] During this battle Pours charged at Alexander’s men with elephants. after defeating Porus, Alexander installed him as ruler of a larger region than he had previously held. Alexander’s horse Bucephalus was killed in this battle, and Alexander named one of the two cities he founded after the battle “Bucephala” after him.[10] Alexander wanted to go on but his army as worn out by the battle that had be fought with Pours. During this time Alexander split his army sending half back to Susa by sea under the command of Admiral Nearchus through the Persian Gulf, and marching the other half on through the Gedrosian Desert. [11] on his return he found that many of the satraps he had entrusted with rule had abused their power and so executed them as well as those who had vandalized the tomb of Cyrus the Great at the old capital city of Pasargadae.[12]

ATG Kingdom

 

HOW THE REIGN OF ALXANDER THE GREAT AFFECTED THIRD CENTRY BC?

Alexander the Great had a profound impact on eastern and western culture. With the expansion of his empire, Hellenism, or Greek-influenced, culture spread from the Mediterranean to Asia.[13] Some of the positive affects that came about because of alexander the Great are the trade routes. The trade routes that were conceived between Europe and Asia. The opening of these routes not only increased trade but allowed unprecedented cultural and religious exchanges between the east and west.[14]  Another major affect that Alexander the Great had was language. The main language that was spoken throughout the empire was Greek. With the reign of Alexander, the Great came a stable trade, without the fear of being attacked. One of the down falls of the empire was that the slave trade was in high demand.

Looking at the thirteen-year reign of Alexander the Great, it is clear to see that Alexander III of Macedon affected history in a major way. He paved the way for trade routes, he spread a language. The army that he built was undefeated. Alexander the Great shaped the world massively.

 

 

[1] Alexander The Great, last modified august 2016, http://www.history.com/topics/ancient-history/alexander-the-great

[2] Alexander The Great

[3] Alexander The Great, last modified 14 November 2013, http://www.ancient.eu/Alexander_the_Great/

[4] Alexander The Great

[5] Alexander The Great

[6] Alexander The Great, last modified 14 November 2013, http://www.ancient.eu/Alexander_the_Great/

[7] Alexander The Great

[8] Alexander The Great

[9] Alexander The Great

[10] Alexander The Great

[11] Alexander The Great

[12] Alexander The Great

[13] The Impact of Alexander The Great’s Conquests, last modified 27 April 2012, http://semiramis-speaks.com/the-impact-of-alexander-the-greats-conquests/

[14] The Impact of Alexander The Great’s Conquests

 

Bibliography

 

Archibald, Zofia. 1991. Discoving The World Of The Anicent Greeks. Oxford: Quarto Publishing.

BBC. 2014. Alexander the Great (356 – 323 BC). Accessed August 30, 2016. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/alexander_the_great.shtml.

Cartledge, Paul. 1998. Ancient Greece. Cmabridge: Cambridge University Press.

Clark, Darci . 2012. THE IMPACT OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT’S CONQUESTS. Apirl 27. Accessed August 28, 2016. http://semiramis-speaks.com/the-impact-of-alexander-the-greats-conquests/.

Digest, The Dougernaut. 2016. Alexander the Great’s Legacy. Accessed August 29, 2016. https://sites.google.com/site/thedougernautdigest/home/traditional-research-essay.

Foner, Eric, and John A Garraty. 1991. Alexander The Great. Accessed August 27, 2016. http://www.history.com/topics/ancient-history/alexander-the-great.

Mark, Joshua J. 2013. Alexander The Great. November 13. Accessed August 29, 2016. http://www.ancient.eu/Alexander_the_Great/.

Pomeroy, Sarah B, Stanley M Burstein, Walter Donlan, and Jennifer Tolbert Roberts. 2008. Ancient Greece A Political, Social, and Cultural history. Vol. 2. New York, New York: Oxford University Press, Inc.

Stories, Awesome. 2013. Map Depicting the Empire of Alexander the Great. Accessed August 30, 2016. https://www.awesomestories.com/asset/view/Map-Depicting-the-Empire-of-Alexander-the-Great.

 

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